Miyagi-ken Japan 1978 (Kyoto)

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Event ID
197806120814
Event name
Miyagi-ken
Country
Japan
Region in the country
Ohfunato, Ishinomaki, Sendai, Fukushima
World region
Asia
Epicentral coordinates (long/lat)
POINT(142.0 38.2)
WKT GIS format
GEMECD contributing partner
Kyoto
Event narrative

On June 12, 1978, a destructive earthquake with Richter magnitude 7.4 (7.7 moment magnitude) occurred off the east coast of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The USGS estimates that the focal depth of this earthquake was at circa 53 kilometers.

The rupture zone of this earthquake occurred at the westernmost limit of known interplate earthquakes, some 150 km west from the Japan trench and nearer to the coast. This deepest part of the rupture zone, about 40 to 50 km, is interpreted to represent the depth of transition to aseismic creep on the plate interface.

There were widespread landslides that caused extensive damage to highways and 1 death in the area around Sendai.

Soil liquefaction was observed in lands claimed by embankments.

The earthquake triggered a small tsunami with a maximum wave height of about 60 cm reported at Kesennuma and Onagawa. No damage was reported from the tsunami.

Date of occurrence (UTC)
1978-06-12
date
Time of occurrence (UTC)
08:14:00
time
Date of occurrence (local)
1978-06-12
date
Time of occurrence (local)
17:14:00
time
Day of the week (local)
Monday
Magnitude
7.7
Magnitude units
Moment (Mw)
Focal depth
53
km
Seismological data: source
USGS
Overall impact

The earthquake caused 28 deaths and 11,028 people were injured. 1,183 houses were completely destroyed within Miyagi Prefecture, with a further 5,574 heavily damaged and 60,124 with light to moderate damage.

Preliminary estimates by the National Land Agency of Japan indicated that the earthquake caused an equivalent of $830 million in total damage.

The extent of damage to buildings caused by the earthquake, led to a revision of the Japanese Building Standard Act in 1981. The earthquake also led to a major revision in the Earthquake Insurance System, which had been set up by the Japanese government in 1966.

Overview data
Loss: Human Casualty
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People injured
11028
number
People injured: source
AIJ
People injured: comment

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People seriously injured
267
number
People seriously injured: source
Yamazaki et al. (1996). Estimation of human casualties due to urban earthquakes. Proceedings of the 11th WCEE, Mexico

People missing
0
number

People killed
28
number
People killed: source
AIJ
People killed: comment

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People killed due to ground shaking
25
number
People killed due to ground shaking: source
AIJ
People killed due to ground shaking: comment

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People dying post catastrophe due to shaking
3
number
People dying post catastrophe due to shaking: source
AIJ
People dying post catastrophe due to shaking: comment

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People missing due to tsunami
0
number
People killed due to tsunami
0
number
People missing due to fire following
0
number
People killed due to fire following
0
number
People missing due to slope failures
0
number
People killed due to slope failures
1
number
People killed due to slope failures: source
AIJ
People killed due to slope failures: comment

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Loss: Building damage
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Total number of buildings destroyed by shaking
1383
number
Total number of buildings destroyed by shaking: source
AIJ
Total number of buildings destroyed by shaking: comment

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Number of buildings damaged by shaking
178261
number
Number of buildings damaged by shaking: source
AIJ
Number of buildings damaged by shaking: comment

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Number of dwellings destroyed by shaking: status
N/A

Number of dwellings damaged by shaking: status
N/A

Loss: Socioeconomic
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People homeless: status
N/A

Direct economic loss
800
million US$
Direct economic loss: source
NIST

Indirect economic loss: status
N/A

Insured loss: status
N/A

Demographics
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Total number of buildings: status
N/A