Kanto Japan 1923 (Kyoto)
The 1923 Great Kanto earthquake occurred on September 1, 1923 at noon time (11:58 am).
The damage was apparently most severe at Yokohama. Damage also occurred on the Boso and Izu Peninsulas and on O-shima.
Nearly 2 m of permanent uplift was observed on the north shore of Sagami Bay and horizontal displacements of as much as 4.5 m were measured on the Boso Peninsula.
A tsunami was generated in Sagami Bay with wave heights as high as 12 m on O-shima and 6 m on the Izu and Boso Peninsulas. Sandblows were noted at Hojo which intermittently shot fountains of water to a height of 3 m.
The major damage area was around Tokyo and Kanagawa prefectures, but damage due to ground shaking was more severe in Yokohama than in Tokyo.
"Department of Social Affairs, Ministry of Interior" and "The Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee" reported the detail of damage. However, the reported numbers are different from each other.
Most sources give death toll of 142,800 (incl. circa 42,300 missing persons) for this event but recently according to a detailed study by Moroi and Takemura (2004) the suggested total death toll was 105,385 of which 91,781 people were killed because of major conflagrations and especially the death toll caused by fire was 53,620 in Honjo-ward, Tokyo. Most of the fire-related deaths occurred at "Hifukushou" area in Honjo-ward.
The total burnt area was more than 38,346,000 square meters and burned about 381,000 of the more than 694,000 houses that were partially or completely destroyed (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/events/1923_09_01.php).
Takemura and Moroi (2004) did very detailed investigation about each location's seismic intensity, damaged buildings and victims based on Ministry of Interior and the Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee reports.
One of their important findings was that 11,086 people died to to building collapse (the greatest loss of life due to building collapse in Japan for more than 120 years).
In addition 325 people were killed by tsunami waves that engulfed areas such as Atami and Enoshima causeway (in Sagami Bay) as well as Yuigahama in Kamakura. Around 688 people were killed due to landslides and another 1505 people died due to other causes.
The number of injured people is 59,058 in "Rokuzo Takeuti: On victims caused by the great fire, Reports of the Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee, No. 100, E., Tokyo, 1925 http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110006611093 (in Japanese)."
The number of injured people is 52,052 by Department of Social Affairs, Ministry of Interior, http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/981915 (in Japanese).
In Utsu's catalogue the number injured is 103,733.
The number of missing people is 43,213 in "Rokuzo Takeuti: On victims caused by the great fire, Reports of the Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee, No. 100, E., Tokyo, 1925 http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110006611093 (in Japanese)."
The number of missing people is 13,275 by Department of Social Affairs, Ministry of Interior, http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/981915 (in Japanese).
Moroi and Takemura (2004) did very detailed investigation about victims, therefore this missing value is only for information as they have included the missing persons in the total number of 105,385 victims.
This evaluation value includes the missing persons. http://www.jaee.gr.jp/stack/submit-j/v04n04/040402_paper.pdf
Of these 93.8% died due to building collapse and 6.2% due to other causes
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Taisho Shinsai Shi (in Japanese) This number does not include the Nihonbashi and Kyobashi areas. http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/981915
http://www.ndl.go.jp/jp/data/publication/issue/pdf/0709.pdf (In Japanese. One dollar is 2.04 yen at 1923). Other sources estimate the losses at 15,600 million US$.
http://www.e-stat.go.jp/SG1/estat/GL08020103.do?_toGL08020103_&tclassID=... (In Japanese. This number is household number)