Lefkada Island Greece 2003 (CAR)
In the morning of August 14, 2003 (8:15 A.M. local time), an 6.3 Mw earthquake occurred offshore the NW coast of Lefkada Island in the Ionian Sea, Western Greece. It's focus was located at 38.94°N, 20.62°E with depth 11 Km.
The earthquake caused significant damage on Lefkada and was strongly felt in the islands of Kephalonia, Zakynthos, Ithaki and in a large area on the mainland of NW Greece.
No life losses occurred but around 55 people were injured incl. some tourists caught in a landslide on the island's western shores.
The intensities were assessed for each of the 39 districts on the island and ranged from V to VIII+ on the EMS-98 scale.
The most seriously damaged areas were the districts along side the Kefalonia transform fault (e.g. Lefkada town, Agios Nikitas, Kalamisti, Dragano, Komolio etc.).
Out of a total of 15,635 buildings on the island, only one reinforced concrete building with soft storey collapsed partially, while 0.8% of the buildings (mostly old stone masonry) were seriously damaged and would in most cases be demolished. An additional 13% of the island's buildings sustained some structural damage. An Elementary School building had to be abandoned and relocated to temporary school structures until its fate was to be determined. Moderate damage was also reported in the Preveza area on the mainland.
The main shock also created various secondary hazards and consequences. A large number of ground fissures caused minor damage to roads, open recreational spaces, tourist facilities, and light construction. Soil liquefaction was observed with serious consequences for port and marine structures (docks, seawalls, and breakwaters) in the north, east, and south parts of the island, namely at the town of Lefkada and at Lygia, Nydri, and Vasiliki villages. Lastly, landslides and rockfalls were triggered mainly at the central and northern part of the island, causing minor problems to the road network, burying 4 cars that were at the time empty and trapping some tourists.
In the USGS EXPO-CAT database it is estimated that during this earthquake 35,000 people were exposed to intensity VII or greater, of which 88% were in rural areas.
221 buildings were sustained damage grade of D4 & D5 of EMS-98 in Lefkada island and around 30 in the mainland.
The total number of damaged buildings, excluding the destroyed ones (D4 & D5 EMS-98), was 3,805 buildings in Lefkada island and around 700 in the mainland. Some, but not many, of these buildings may have also been affected by liquefaction.
According to Karababa and Pomonis on Lefkada Island 221 buildings, of which 181 were old load-bearing stone masonry, were classified as having damage grade 4 (very heavy damage). In addition some more buildings had damage grade 4 on the mainland. In Greece most buildings with damage grade 4 are demolished as it is deemed uneconomic to repair.
According to Karababa and Pomonis on Lefkada Island 3805 buildings, were classified as having damage grade 1, 2 or 3. In addition some more buildings had damage grade 1, 2 or 3 on the mainland.
Dwelling occupancy in this region is quite low (<2 people per dwelling)
Direct economic loss, excl. the insured losses.