Molise Italy 2002 (CAR)
On Thursday 31st October 2002, at 11:32 am local time, a moderate earthquake of moment magnitude 5.7 and focal depth of 6 km struck the inland part of Campobasso province in Molise region, in the southeastern part of the Italian peninsula.
The main shock’s epicentre (41.74°N, 14.85°E according to the USGS) was in a rural area very near the small town of Casacalenda (popul. 2,350). The next day, November 1, at 4:08pm (local time), an aftershock of similar magnitude - Mw5.7 - hit the same area, with an epicenter 3.5 kilometers to the south of the main shock. The aftershock seriously damaged many buildings whose stability was already impaired by the main shock, but it did not cause any additional casualties.
In the USGS EXPO-CAT database it is estimated that during the mainshock just under 8,000 people were exposed to intensity VII or greater, of which 100% were in rural areas.
Shake Map Atlas
The mainshock killed 30 people (all in San Giuliano di Puglia) and injured 173. An additional 56 people were injured in the next day’s aftershock mostly due to panic reactions. Most of the fatalities occurred when a school collapsed in the small town of San Giuliano (popul. 1,200), as of 64 pupils and teachers inside the school at the time of occurrence, 27 pupils and 1 teacher were killed. Another 2 people died in the same town due to falling debris.
The collapsed school building (Iovene Primary School) was a 2-storeyed, L-shaped load-bearing masonry structure with calcareous stones. It was designed in 1957 and built in 1959-60. In the collapsed wing, a second floor had been added on top of the original first floor and it was completed just 2 months before the earthquake, in the form of load-bearing brick masonry with an RC roof. This wing collapsed in a pancake manner, while the other wing was seriously damaged but did not collapse.
The earthquake’s consequences were the subject of intense investigations in Italy and EERI’s Earthquake Spectra published a special issue on the event (Volume 20, No. S1, July 2004). San Giuliano di Puglia, Bonefro, Santa Croce di Magliano, Ripabottoni, Castellino del Biferno, and Casalnuovo Monterotaro were the most affected towns.
As of December 15, 2002, about 15,000 inspections had been made in Molise and about 2,000 in Puglia. In San Giuliano alone about 300 buildings were declared unsafe and would probably be demolished. All the towns in this area are located on hilltops, ridges, and steep sloping hills. The older and medieval buildings are almost always located on outcropping rock formations, while the newer developments are often on looser materials. The building stock in this area is rather homogeneous, but the building types are significantly different in the old and the newer parts of towns.
incl. 56 injured mostly due to panic in the aftershock
28 due to the collapse of a school & 2 due to falling debris
out of 23,000 inspected bgds
out of 23,000 inspected bgds
by the end of the first week