Northridge USA 1994 (SPA)
At 4:31 A.M. local time, Monday, January 17, 1994 the Northridge earthquake struck the San Fernando Valley region of Southern California with a moment magnitude measured at 6.7 and focal depth of 19 km.
The earthquake was centered 32 km west-northwest of Los Angeles along a south-dipping, blind thrust fault. Little if any surface faulting was produced.
The earthquake was felt throughout much of southern California and as far away as Turlock, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; Richfield, Utah and Ensenada, Mexico.
The maximum recorded acceleration exceeded 1.0g at several sites in the area with the largest value of 1.8g recorded at Tarzana, about 7 km south of the epicenter.
A maximum uplift of about 15 cm occurred in the Santa Susana Mountains and many rockslides occurred in mountain areas, blocking some roads. Some ground cracks were observed at Granada Hills and in Potrero Canyon. Some liquefaction occurred at Simi Valley and in some other parts of the Los Angeles Basin.
Sixty people were killed, more than 7,000 injured, 20,000 homeless and more than 40,000 buildings damaged in Los Angeles, Ventura, Orange and San Bernardino Counties.
Severe damage occurred in the San Fernando Valley: maximum intensities of (IX) were observed in and near Northridge and in Sherman Oaks.
Lesser, but still significant damage occurred at Fillmore, Glendale, Santa Clarita, Santa Monica, Simi Valley and in western and central Los Angeles.
Damage was also sustained to Anaheim Stadium. Collapsed overpasses closed sections of the Santa Monica Freeway, the Antelope Valley Freeway, the Simi Valley Freeway and the Golden State Freeway.
Fires caused additional damage in the San Fernando Valley and at Malibu and Venice.
Preliminary estimates of damage are between 13 and 20 billion U.S. dollars.
(From USGS' Significant Earthquakes of the World 1994 at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/events/1994_01_17.php)
the often quoted total of 60 fatalities includes a number cited by OES as "natural death due to earthquake related stress". Peek-Asa et al find 33 deaths directly caused by the earthquake, which is confirmed by OES.
incl. 22 due to structural failure, 12 due to fatal physical injury not related to structural failure, 24 stress-related deaths (mostly due to heart attack) and 3 deaths due to respirator failure
of 114,000 buildings inspected (presumably the significantly affected area), less than 3000 were red-tagged.
of 114,000 buildings inspected (presumably in the significantly affected area), 14,500 were red- AND yellow-tagged.
The value of $44 billion is the best available, but only approximate, and was arrived at by pro-rating up insured losses to account for uninsured property.
Property Claims Services (PCS) estimated the insured losses at 7.2 billion US$ in August 1994 and at 10.4 billion US$ in January 1995