Latur-Killari India 1993 (CAR)

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Event ID
199309292225
Event name
Latur-Killari
Country
India
Region in the country
Maharashtra State (Latur and Osmanabad districts)
Epicentral coordinates (long/lat)
POINT(76.478 18.06)
WKT GIS format
GEMECD contributing partner
CAR
Event narrative

On Thursday 30th September 1993, at 03:55 local time, an earthquake of moment magnitude 6.2 and focal depth of 14 km struck the districts of Latur and Osmanabad in Maharashtra State, India.

This was a rare intraplate earthquake in the centre of the sub-Indian continent on the Deccan Plateau which rises to around 600 metres altitude in this location. There is no historic record of earthquakes in the area and it is possible that this event may have been induced by the nearby Lower Tirna Reservoir, although the depth of its waters is on the lower bound of water depths of reservoirs where induced seismicity has been documented.

The main shock’s epicentre (18.06°N, 76.48°E) was very near the town of Killari inhabited by 16,000 people. In the USGS EXPO-CAT database it is estimated that during this earthquake 364,000 people were exposed to intensity VII or greater, of which around 93% were in rural areas. A surface fault rupture extended between Killari and the village of Talni.

Date of occurrence (UTC)
1993-09-30
date
Time of occurrence (UTC)
22:25:00
time
Date of occurrence (local)
1993-09-30
date
Time of occurrence (local)
03:55:00
time
Day of the week (local)
Thursday
Magnitude
6.2
Magnitude units
Moment (Mw)
Focal depth
14.1
km
Seismological data: source
USGS
Seismological data: comment

ShakeMap Atlas

Overall impact

The rural areas around Killari town were devastated, as the local single or two storey unreinforced rubble stone masonry on mud or lime mortar with heavy-thick compacted earth roofs could not withstand the force of the earthquake.

By contrast houses with wooden vertical posts and rafters tied with coir ropes and covered with thatched roofs suffered less damage and proved much safer for their occupants.

In the worst affected area there were 69 villages and small towns inhabited by 171,000 people. In these locations around 28,500 buildings were classified as totally or partially collapsed, while damage to engineered buildings was not so severe.

Because the earthquake occurred in the middle of the night, life loss was heavy, with 16 villages loosing 14-33% of their population, while in Killari town just over 7% of its population was killed.

In total 7928 lives were lost and approximately 15,600 people were injured of which 446 were handicapped.

Just over 58,000 families have been rendered homeless and a major reconstruction-rehabilitation program partly funded by the World Bank commenced. The World Bank project completion report in 1999 estimated the direct cost of the earthquake at 364 million US$.

Overview data
Loss: Human Casualty
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People injured
16000
number
People injured: source
Latur District website (http://latur.nic.in/html/earthquake.htm)
People injured: comment

9183 injured in 32 investigated villages in Osmanabad district where fatalities occurred. No injuries reported in 36 villages in Latur district where fatalities occurred (Kagami, H. et al. (1994). Reconnaissance Report on the 30 September 1993 Earthquake in the state of Maharashtra, India. Research Report on Natural Disasters, B-5-4).

Parasuraman S. (1995). The Impact of the 1993 Latur-Osmanabad (Maharashtra) Earthquake on Lives, Livelihoods and Property, Disasters, 19:2, 156-169, mentions the following:

It is difficult to estimate accurately the number of persons injured. Because of the multiplicity of individuals and institutions, within and outside the villages, involved in providing treatment and the repeated counting of injured persons at different places, numbers were certainly inflated.
Government of Maharashtra figures, collected from various treatment points, put the number at 16,000. The Joint Action Group of Institutions for Social Work Education survey (TISS survey), based on information given by household members, counted 9,082 injured persons (the TISS estimate may be on the low side due to the non-availability of members of 2 to 5 per cent of the households at the time data were collected in October 1993).

Elsewhere as many as 30,000 people injured has been reported (e.g. USGS PAGER-CAT catalogue v1.2).

People injured: status
Approximate

People seriously injured
4803
number
People seriously injured: source
Parasuraman S. (1995). The Impact of the 1993 Latur-Osmanabad (Maharashtra) Earthquake on Lives, Livelihoods and Property, Disasters, 19:2, 156-169
People seriously injured: comment

Based on the TISS survey data, 4803 people were hospitalized.

People seriously injured: status
Greater than

People missing
0
number

People killed
8311
number
People killed: source
Parasuraman S. (1995). The Impact of the 1993 Latur-Osmanabad (Maharashtra) Earthquake on Lives, Livelihoods and Property, Disasters, 19:2, 156-169
People killed: comment

Based on the TISS survey data, there were 4532 deaths in Osmanabad district and 3779 deaths in Latur district. From these deaths 514 were among people who were visitors (not residents).

Elsewhere 7928 is the most commonly quoted figure in Indian sources, while the maximum quoted figure is 9782. The USGS PAGER-CAT catalogue v1.2 mentions 9748 deaths.

People killed: status
Greater than

People dying post catastrophe: status
N/A

People killed due to ground shaking
8311
number
People killed due to ground shaking: source
Parasuraman S. (1995). The Impact of the 1993 Latur-Osmanabad (Maharashtra) Earthquake on Lives, Livelihoods and Property, Disasters, 19:2, 156-169
People killed due to ground shaking: comment

GEMECD's preferred figure.

People killed due to ground shaking: status
Greater than

People dying post catastrophe due to shaking: status
N/A

People missing due to tsunami
0
number
People killed due to tsunami
0
number
People missing due to fire following
0
number
People killed due to fire following
0
number
People missing due to slope failures
0
number
People killed due to slope failures
0
number
Loss: Building damage
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Total number of buildings destroyed by shaking
30000
number
Total number of buildings destroyed by shaking: source
Latur District website (http://latur.nic.in/html/earthquake.htm)
Total number of buildings destroyed by shaking: comment

In the report:
Kagami, H., Kuge, K., Bhartia, B. K. and Sakai, S. (1994). Reconnaissance Report on the 30 September 1993 Earthquake in the state of Maharashtra, India. Research Report on Natural Disasters, B-5-4,
a list of damages and casualties in 68 towns & villages in the affected Osmanadad and Latur districts contains 17065 totally collapsed and 11327 partially collapsed residential buildings (houses).

Total number of buildings destroyed by shaking: status
Approximate

Number of buildings damaged by shaking
211000
number
Number of buildings damaged by shaking: source
Latur District website (http://latur.nic.in/html/earthquake.htm)
Number of buildings damaged by shaking: comment

211000 houses in 13 districts suffered damages of varying degree

Number of buildings damaged by shaking: status
Approximate

Number of dwellings destroyed by shaking
28000
number
Number of dwellings destroyed by shaking: source
World Bank (1999). Implementation Completion Report, Maharashtra Emergency Earthquake Rehabilitation Project, Report No. 19218
Number of dwellings destroyed by shaking: comment

new homes for 52 relocated villages

Number of dwellings destroyed by shaking: status
Greater than

Number of dwellings damaged by shaking
197000
number
Number of dwellings damaged by shaking: source
World Bank (1999). Implementation Completion Report, Maharashtra Emergency Earthquake Rehabilitation Project, Report No. 19218
Number of dwellings damaged by shaking: comment

incl. houses that were repaired, reconstructed or strengthened. In total, approximately 225,000 houses were destroyed or
damaged, and more than 58,000 families were left homeless

Number of dwellings damaged by shaking: status
Approximate

Loss: Socioeconomic
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People homeless
300000
number
People homeless: source
CAR estimate
People homeless: comment

~300,000 lived in houses that were destroyed or demolished (more than 58,000 families).

People homeless: status
Approximate

Direct economic loss
364
million US$
Direct economic loss: source
World Bank (1999). Implementation Completion Report, Maharashtra Emergency Earthquake Rehabilitation Project, Report No. 19218

Indirect economic loss: status
N/A

Insured loss
0
million US$
Insured loss: source
Munich Re

Demographics
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Total number of buildings: status
N/A