Latur-Killari India 1993 (CAR)
On Thursday 30th September 1993, at 03:55 local time, an earthquake of moment magnitude 6.2 and focal depth of 14 km struck the districts of Latur and Osmanabad in Maharashtra State, India.
This was a rare intraplate earthquake in the centre of the sub-Indian continent on the Deccan Plateau which rises to around 600 metres altitude in this location. There is no historic record of earthquakes in the area and it is possible that this event may have been induced by the nearby Lower Tirna Reservoir, although the depth of its waters is on the lower bound of water depths of reservoirs where induced seismicity has been documented.
The main shock’s epicentre (18.06°N, 76.48°E) was very near the town of Killari inhabited by 16,000 people. In the USGS EXPO-CAT database it is estimated that during this earthquake 364,000 people were exposed to intensity VII or greater, of which around 93% were in rural areas. A surface fault rupture extended between Killari and the village of Talni.
The rural areas around Killari town were devastated, as the local single or two storey unreinforced rubble stone masonry on mud or lime mortar with heavy-thick compacted earth roofs could not withstand the force of the earthquake.
By contrast houses with wooden vertical posts and rafters tied with coir ropes and covered with thatched roofs suffered less damage and proved much safer for their occupants.
In the worst affected area there were 69 villages and small towns inhabited by 171,000 people. In these locations around 28,500 buildings were classified as totally or partially collapsed, while damage to engineered buildings was not so severe.
Because the earthquake occurred in the middle of the night, life loss was heavy, with 16 villages loosing 14-33% of their population, while in Killari town just over 7% of its population was killed.
In total 7928 lives were lost and approximately 15,600 people were injured of which 446 were handicapped.
Just over 58,000 families have been rendered homeless and a major reconstruction-rehabilitation program partly funded by the World Bank commenced. The World Bank project completion report in 1999 estimated the direct cost of the earthquake at 364 million US$.
9183 injured in 32 investigated villages in Osmanabad district where fatalities occurred. No injuries reported in 36 villages in Latur district where fatalities occurred (Kagami, H. et al. (1994). Reconnaissance Report on the 30 September 1993 Earthquake in the state of Maharashtra, India. Research Report on Natural Disasters, B-5-4).
Parasuraman S. (1995). The Impact of the 1993 Latur-Osmanabad (Maharashtra) Earthquake on Lives, Livelihoods and Property, Disasters, 19:2, 156-169, mentions the following:
It is difficult to estimate accurately the number of persons injured. Because of the multiplicity of individuals and institutions, within and outside the villages, involved in providing treatment and the repeated counting of injured persons at different places, numbers were certainly inflated.
Government of Maharashtra figures, collected from various treatment points, put the number at 16,000. The Joint Action Group of Institutions for Social Work Education survey (TISS survey), based on information given by household members, counted 9,082 injured persons (the TISS estimate may be on the low side due to the non-availability of members of 2 to 5 per cent of the households at the time data were collected in October 1993).
Elsewhere as many as 30,000 people injured has been reported (e.g. USGS PAGER-CAT catalogue v1.2).
Based on the TISS survey data, there were 4532 deaths in Osmanabad district and 3779 deaths in Latur district. From these deaths 514 were among people who were visitors (not residents).
Elsewhere 7928 is the most commonly quoted figure in Indian sources, while the maximum quoted figure is 9782. The USGS PAGER-CAT catalogue v1.2 mentions 9748 deaths.
GEMECD's preferred figure.
In the report:
Kagami, H., Kuge, K., Bhartia, B. K. and Sakai, S. (1994). Reconnaissance Report on the 30 September 1993 Earthquake in the state of Maharashtra, India. Research Report on Natural Disasters, B-5-4,
a list of damages and casualties in 68 towns & villages in the affected Osmanadad and Latur districts contains 17065 totally collapsed and 11327 partially collapsed residential buildings (houses).
211000 houses in 13 districts suffered damages of varying degree
new homes for 52 relocated villages
incl. houses that were repaired, reconstructed or strengthened. In total, approximately 225,000 houses were destroyed or
damaged, and more than 58,000 families were left homeless
~300,000 lived in houses that were destroyed or demolished (more than 58,000 families).