Gujarat (Bhuj) India 2001 (CAR)
On Friday 26th January 2001, at 08:46 local time, a tremendous earthquake of moment magnitude 7.6 and focal depth of 23 km struck the district of Kutch in the Gujarat state, India.
The main shock’s epicentre (23.40°N, 70.29°E) was in the Bhachau sub-district where up to 5% of the population was killed.
In the USGS EXPO-CAT database it is estimated that during this earthquake 4,456,000 people were exposed to intensity VII or greater, of which around 58% were in rural areas.
The earthquake occurred on India’s Republic Day and at the time of occurrence parades and flag hoisting ceremonies were taking place in open spaces across the affected region. This fact may have contributed to a reduced loss of life as many school and other public buildings collapsed in this earthquake, although in Anjar city more than 300 parading students were killed due to falling debris as the parade was taking place in a narrow street.
Initially the Gujarat government had estimated the death toll for this event at 20,005 but this figure included many missing people. When the government made a thorough household level investigation in the affected region for the purpose of providing assistance to affected families the number of fatalities was reduced to 13,805. In addition around 25 people were killed in Pakistan’s Sindh province. In the Kutch district the death toll reached 12,221 and 136,050 injured (of which 14,400 were seriously injured).
In the remaining districts of Gujarat State there were 1584 deaths and 30,800 injured, with around half of the deaths occurring in the city of Ahmedabad situated 320 km east of the epicentre, where 69 reinforced concrete frame buildings (mostly residential) with 5 to 11 storeys, collapsed killing 750 people, thus exposing the high seismic risk in urban areas of India.
Similarly several tall RC buildings collapsed in Rajkot (100 km away from the epicentre) and one in Surat (340 km away from the epicentre).
In the Kutch district the capital city of Bhuj (population of 120,000) was devastated, with three quarters of the city’s tall RC buildings (5 or more storeys) collapsing. The Bhuj District Hospital also collapsed causing the loss of 175 lives.
In total just over 222,000 dwelling units were destroyed in this earthquake and the number of homeless people reached at least 600,000.
A joint report by the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank estimated the direct cost of the earthquake at 4.4 billion US$ with an additional 0.57 billion US$ indirect losses related to loss of output.
13805 killed in India of which 12,221 in the Kachchh district.
~25 killed in Pakistan.
1228 "complete damage" buildings in the health sector
2758 "partial damage" buildings in the health sector.
13702 "affected" institutions in the education sector.
Fully destroyed houses
Partially destroyed houses
Other estimates (OFDA) suggest 600,000 homeless, but on the basis of the destroyed dwellings (378,286) the OCHA eastimate is preferred.
In addition Munich Re estimates 100 million US$ direct economic loss in Sidh Province (Pakistan).
Excl. 100 million US$ in insured losses in India reported by Munich Re.