Banda Aceh, Sumatra Indonesia 2004 (CAR)

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Event ID
200412260058
Event name
Banda Aceh, Sumatra
Country
Indonesia
Epicentral coordinates (long/lat)
POINT(95.97 3.29)
WKT GIS format
GEMECD contributing partner
CAR
Event narrative

On the 26th December 2004 the world west of Indonesia’s Sumatra Island awoke to the news that a great earthquake had occurred offshore northern Sumatra. This moment magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred at 07:58 local time, at focal depth of 30 km and caused a series of tsunami waves that spread across the Indian Ocean crashing with enormous power on the shores of several countries, affecting locations both near and far from the epicentre.

In the USGS EXPO-CAT database it is estimated that during this earthquake 2,641,000 people were exposed to ground shaking intensity VII or greater in Sumatra, of which 79% were in rural areas.

This was the third greatest recorded earthquake (following the 1960 Chile and 1964 Alaska earthquakes) and the resulting basin-wide tsunami was the first since the 1964 Alaska earthquake.

In the Indian Ocean the previous basin-wide tsunami had taken place after the Krakatoa eruption that took place on August 27, 1883 in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra Islands of Indonesia.

Date of occurrence (UTC)
2004-12-26
date
Time of occurrence (UTC)
00:58:00
time
Date of occurrence (local)
2004-12-26
date
Time of occurrence (local)
07:58:00
time
Day of the week (local)
Sunday
was it a holiday
Yes
boolean
Magnitude
9
Magnitude units
Moment (Mw)
Focal depth
30
km
Seismological data: source
USGS
Seismological data: comment

ShakeMap Atlas

Overall impact

A few days after the earthquake it became apparent that this was the worst tsunami disaster in history as it caused the loss of nearly 228,700 lives incl. 50,910 people that were missing, presumably swept away to the sea and it had injured approximately 100,000 more.

Loss of life occurred in 14 countries with shores on the Indian Ocean. The worst life loss took place in Aceh province of Sumatra where just over 166,700 lives were lost, followed by Sri Lanka with nearly 36,850 deaths, India (incl. the Andaman and Nicobar Islands) with just over 16,300 and Thailand with just over 8,200 (incl. 2,860 foreign tourists) deaths. An additional nearly 600 lives were lost in the remaining 10 affected countries (Somalia, Maldives, Malaysia, Myanmar, Tanzania, Seychelles, Bangladesh, South Africa, Yemen and Kenya).

Damage to mostly unreinforced masonry and timber frame buildings on the shores of Sumatra, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand was devastating, while reinforced concrete frame buildings withstood the impact of the tsunami better, suffering mostly loss of infill walls and structural damage due to impact with heavy tsunami debris.

Approximately 365,000 dwellings were destroyed and another 320,000 were damaged as a whole in this event. In many locations with flat coastline the tsunami inundation extent exceeded 1.5 km.

An Indian Ocean tsunami warning system became operational a few years later. Ground shaking damage occurred in the Aceh province where buildings in Banda Aceh, Meulaboh and other cities are documented to have suffered collapse or serious damage.

Overview data
Loss: Human Casualty
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People injured
100000
number
People injured: source
CAR estimate
People injured: comment

There was no injuries tally in Sumatra and in India. In Indonesia the number of injured has been estimated to have been around 25,600. In Sri Lanka the injured were 23,819. In Thailand 8,517. In India it was estimated that 24,000 were injured in Tamil Nadu State. In the Madlives the injured were 2,214. In Malaysia 299 and in the Seychelles 57.

People injured: status
Approximate

People seriously injured
15000
number
People seriously injured: source
CAR estimate
People seriously injured: comment

3,431 people were hospitalized in Indonesia (at least 11 of which died in the hospitals).

People seriously injured: status
Approximate

People missing
50907
number
People missing: source
EEFIT
People missing: comment

Almost all due to tsunami


People killed
177780
number
People killed: source
EEFIT
People killed: comment

Almost all due to tsunami


People killed due to ground shaking: comment

In Sumatra in the tsunami affected areas some certainly were killed due to building collapse (e.g. collapse of the Pante Pirak Department Store in Banda Aceh) but the tsunami arrived soon afterwards and made rescue and record keeping impossible. In addition 135 to 280 deaths have been reported in the inland regencies of Aceh Province, but the cause of death could not be ascertained.

People killed due to ground shaking: status
N/A

People dying post catastrophe due to shaking: status
N/A

People missing due to tsunami
50907
number
People missing due to tsunami: source
CAR estimate
People killed due to tsunami
177600
number
People killed due to tsunami: source
CAR estimate
People missing due to fire following
0
number
People killed due to fire following
0
number
People missing due to slope failures
0
number
People killed due to slope failures
0
number
Loss: Building damage
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Total number of buildings destroyed by shaking: status
N/A

Number of buildings damaged by shaking: status
N/A

Number of dwellings destroyed by shaking
365000
number
Number of dwellings destroyed by shaking: source
CAR estimate from various sources for each affected country
Number of dwellings destroyed by shaking: comment

Note: Almost entirely due to tsunami although some buildings were destroyed in Aceh province due to ground shaking but data have not been disaggregated

Number of dwellings destroyed by shaking: status
Approximate

Number of dwellings damaged by shaking
320000
number
Number of dwellings damaged by shaking: source
CAR estimate from various sources for each affected country
Number of dwellings damaged by shaking: comment

Note: Almost entirely due to tsunami although some buildings were destroyed in Aceh province due to ground shaking but data have not been disaggregated

Number of dwellings damaged by shaking: status
Approximate

Loss: Socioeconomic
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People homeless
2050000
number
People homeless: source
CAR estimate
People homeless: comment

Initially internally displaced population

People homeless: status
Approximate

Direct economic loss
10995.55
million US$
Direct economic loss: source
Munich Re
Direct economic loss: comment

The direct economic loss reported here excl. an estimated 1 billion US$ in insured losses.

The estimated direct economic losses for each of the 13 affected countries are as follows:
Kenya 100 million US$
Maldives 500 million US$
Madagascar 0.5 million US$
Somalia 100 million US$
Tanzania 0.05 million US$
Seychelles 100 miliion US$
Bangladesh 200 million US$
Indonesia 4500 million US$ (excl. 225 million US$ in insured losses)
Malaysia 200 million US$
Myanmar 300 million US$
Thailand 1500 million US$ (excl. 500 million US$ in insured losses)
India 2495 million US$ (excl. 5 million US$ in insured losses)
Sri Lanka 1000 million US$


Indirect economic loss
2150.5
million US$
Indirect economic loss: source
CRED Socio-economic study for GEMECD
Indirect economic loss: comment

1.2 billion US$ in Indonesia
0.448 billion US$ in India
0.33 billion US$ in Sri Lanka
0.172 billion in Maldives

Indirect economic loss: status
Greater than

Insured loss
1000
million US$
Insured loss: source
Munich Re
Insured loss: comment

1 billion US$ in insured losses have been estimated, of which:
in Indonesia 225 million US$
in Thailand 500 million US$
in India 5 million US$


Demographics
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Total number of buildings: status
N/A