Kashmir Pakistan 2005 (CAR)

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Event ID
200510080350
Event name
Kashmir
Country
Pakistan
Epicentral coordinates (long/lat)
POINT(73.58 34.47)
WKT GIS format
GEMECD contributing partner
CAR
Event narrative

On Saturday October 8th, 2005 at 08:50 am local time in the morning an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 (MW) occurred in northern Pakistan (34.47°N, 73.58°E) with a focal depth of 23 km.

The epicentre was located about 10 km northeast of Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJK) province in the Pakistan administered Kashmir.

Widespread destruction resulted in AJK province and in the eastern districts of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan as well in the India administered Kashmir.

The cities of Muzaffarabad, Balakot and Bagh, lying in the vicinity of the Jhelum thrust fault, were extensively damaged.

In the USGS EXPO-CAT database it is estimated that during this earthquake 2,079,000 people were exposed to intensity VII or greater, of which 61% were in rural areas.

Date of occurrence (UTC)
2005-10-08
date
Time of occurrence (UTC)
03:50:00
time
Date of occurrence (local)
2005-10-08
date
Time of occurrence (local)
08:50:00
time
Day of the week (local)
Saturday
was it a holiday
Yes
boolean
Magnitude
7.6
Magnitude units
Moment (Mw)
Focal depth
23.1
km
Seismological data: source
USGS
Seismological data: comment

ShakeMap Atlas

Overall impact

Tremendous loss of life occurred in Pakistan (73,338 documented deaths) and in India administered Kashmir (1,209 deaths), while the number injured in Pakistan was 128,309 of which 69,412 were seriously injured (an additional 6,266 were injured in India and 14 in Afghanistan). Six months after the earthquake more than 2,200 were still treated in Pakistani hospitals.

Buildings in the rural areas were predominantly unreinforced rubble stone masonry with heavy compacted earth roof and poor quality, usually without seismic resistance reinforced concrete frames with flat slabs in the main towns. Many of these buildings collapsed killing many of their occupants.

Further away in Islamabad (150 km from the epicentre) two of the three 10-storey apartment buildings in the Margalla complex collapsed killing 72 people and injuring tens more.

In the Khagan, Neelum and Jhelum Valleys, thousands of landslides, rockslides, rock falls and debris flows were triggered, and rivers were dammed. These mass movements made access to many remote mountain villages extremely difficult and caused around 35% of the life losses, although the number of triggered landslides was substantially lower than would be expected for an earthquake of such magnitude in a mountainous region.

The largest and deadliest documented landslide was the Hattian Bala rock avalanche in the Jhelum Valley that destroyed the Dandbeh village and killed a few hundred people. Another landslide in Dhanni village killed 39 people, while another 247 were killed there due to ground shaking that led to the collapse of buildings .

Approximately 3.5 million people were rendered homeless as nearly 490,000 houses were destroyed and another 175,000 were damaged but repairable.

Losses from this earthquake were estimated to cost $5.2 billion in Pakistan (approximately 4% of Pakistan’s GDP in 2005) and $1.2 billion in India.

Overview data
Loss: Human Casualty
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People injured
134589
number
People injured: source
The Federal Relief Commissioner
People injured: comment

128,304 Pakistan; 6266 Inda; 14 Afghanistan (as of March 31, 2006)


People seriously injured
69412
number
People seriously injured: source
The Federal Relief Commissioner
People seriously injured: comment

All in Pakistan (as of March 31, 2006).


People missing: status
N/A

People killed
74551
number
People killed: source
The Federal Relief Commissioner
People killed: comment

73,338 Pakistan; 1209 India; 4 Afghanistan (as of March 31, 2006)


People killed due to ground shaking
48051
number
People killed due to ground shaking: source
CAR estimate
People killed due to ground shaking: comment

This figure was derived from subtracting the total of deaths from the landslide-related deaths.


People killed due to slope failures
26500
number
People killed due to slope failures: source
Petley, D., Dunning,S., Rosser, N. and Kausar, A.(2006). Incipient Landslides in the Jhelum Valley, Pakistan Following the 8th October 2005 Earthquake. Disaster Mitigation of Debris Flows, Slope Failures and Landslides, Universal Academy Press.
People killed due to slope failures: comment

The death toll from the landslides were about 26,200, plus 300 in India.

Loss: Building damage
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Number of dwellings destroyed
489860
number
Number of dwellings destroyed: source
Pakistan: ERRA (2006). Principles, Themes and Lessons Learnt - Design and Implementation of ERRA’s Rural Housing Programme. India: GSI, Northern Region (2006). A geoseismological report on 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake
Number of dwellings destroyed: comment

Pakistan: 462,363 Number of completely damaged houses in the 9 affected districts of AJK, NWF provinces (excl. Islamabad City, Punjab & the Northern Territories).
ERRA-Earthquake Reconstruction & Rehabilitation Authority. Results of Field Survey Carried out by Army and Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF)-led Teams.

India: 27,497 destroyed houses in the 6 affected districts (GSI - Geological Survey of India).


Number of dwellings damaged
175067
number
Number of dwellings damaged: source
Pakistan: ERRA (2006). Principles, Themes and Lessons Learnt - Design and Implementation of ERRA’s Rural Housing Programme. India: GSI, Northern Region (2006). A geoseismological report on 8th October 2005 Kashmir earthquake
Number of dwellings damaged: comment

Pakistan: 109,956 Number of partially damaged houses in the 9 affected districts of AJK, NWF provinces excl. Islamabad City, Punjab & the Northern Territories).
ERRA-Earthquake Reconstruction & Rehabilitation Authority. Results of Field Survey Carried out by Army and Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF)-led Teams.
Additional dwellings were damaged in Islamabad City, Punjab province and in the Northern Territories.

India: 65,111 partially damaged houses in the 6 affected districts (GSI - Geological Survey of India).


Loss: Socioeconomic
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People homeless
3500000
number
People homeless: source
EERI (2006). Learning from earthquakes. The Kashmir Earthquake of October 8, 2005: Impacts in Pakistan. EERI Special Earthquake Report, February 2006.
People homeless: status
Greater than

Direct economic loss
6195.05
million US$
Direct economic loss: source
Munich Re
Direct economic loss: comment

5 bn US$ in Pakistan and 1.2 bn US$ in India. Minor losses in Jalalabad, Afghanistan (50000 US$). Excl. 5 million US$ in insured losses.

Direct economic loss: status
Approximate

Indirect economic loss
576
million US$
Indirect economic loss: source
GFDRR
Indirect economic loss: comment

estimated indirect loss in Pakistan


Insured loss
5
million US$
Insured loss: source
Munich Re

Demographics
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Total number of buildings: status
N/A